中国将建立国家技术安全管理清单制度

英国《金融时报》 韩碧如 北京报道
2019.06.10 12:00

中国将建立敏感技术出口管制机制。在中美贸易争端日益恶化的背景下,此举引发了中国将采取针锋相对的报复措施的可能性。

宣布这一决定之际,美中在5月进行的最新一轮贸易谈判无果而终后,将彼此间的争端扩大到单纯的关税范畴以外。

特朗普政府已将中国电信设备制造商华为(Huawei)列入黑名单,而中国威胁称,将惩罚那些与华为断绝关系的外国公司,将它们列为“不可靠”实体。

新华社报道说,出口管制机制——似乎基于商务部两年前首次提出的一项法律草案——将“预防和化解国家安全风险”。报道还补充称,细节将很快公布。

中国的新规定可能被证明类似于美国对战略技术的出口管制。这些管制措施——涉及军事装备、部分加密技术和一些军民两用产品——长期令中国感到不快。中国谈判代表经常声称,如果美国放松对高科技产品的管制,中国对美贸易顺差就有望减少。

根据咨询公司普华永道(PwC) 2018年的一份报告,中国的法律草案在涵盖核材料和军用材料的同时,还包括了让中国在遭遇其他任何国家歧视性出口管制的情况下实施报复的自由度。

“这是改善中国制度的重要一步,也是反击美国打压的一个举措,”《环球时报》总编辑胡锡进在Twitter上写道,“一旦生效,一些向美国出口的技术将受到管制。”《环球时报》是一份民族主义小报,有时被用来将一些尚未成为官方政策的想法提出来。

新华社的报道称,该机制将由国家发改委(NDRC)根据2015年通过的《国家安全法》制定。但新华社的报道没有提及商务部2017年发布的法律草案,该草案是参照美国限制军事和战略技术出口的规定起草的。

“中国……似乎正在实施一项较长期战略。该战略认识到其在制造业的竞争优势,同时朝着争夺现代供应链真正价值的控制权——知识产权——的方向迈进,”普华永道中东税务专家珍妮•达乌(Jeanine Daou)在普华永道的报告中总结说。

中国已表示,将对单方面拒绝与华为开展业务的外国公司实施报复,使跨国公司被困在美中就下一代技术主导权展开的争夺战的中间地带。上月,国家发改委暗示将禁止稀土出口。稀土有许多战略用途,包括智能手机、激光、仪表盘、风力发电机和核磁共振成像仪器,以及90%以上的混合动力和电动汽车。

译者/何黎

原文:China to roll out export controls on sensitive technology 

By Lucy Hornby in Beijing

China will establish a mechanism for export control of sensitive technology, raising the spectre of tit-for-tat retaliation amid a souring trade dispute with the United States.

The announcement comes as both sides expand their dispute beyond simple tariffs, after the most recent round of trade negotiations ended without a deal in May. 

Since then, the Trump administration has blacklisted Chinese telecommunications equipment maker Huawei, while China has threatened to punish foreign companies that cut off ties with Huawei by listing them as “ unreliable”.

The export control mechanism — which appears to be based on a draft law first proposed by the Ministry of Commerce two years ago — would “prevent and resolve national security risks”, Xinhua said. Details would be released soon, it added.

The new Chinese regulations could prove similar to US export controls on strategic technologies. Those controls, covering military equipment, some encryption technologies, and some dual-use products, have long irked China. Chinese negotiators have often claimed that their trade surplus could be trimmed if the US would relax controls on high-tech goods.

While covering nuclear and military materials, the draft Chinese law also included latitude for retaliation if China is subject to discriminatory export control measures by any other country, according to a 2018 report by consultancy PwC.  

“This is a major step to improve [China’s system] and also a move to counter the US crackdown,” tweeted Hu Xijin, editor-in-chief of the Global Times, a nationalist tabloid that is sometimes used to float ideas that are not yet official policy. “Once taking effect, some technology exports to the US will be subject to the control.”

The mechanism will be developed by the National Development and Reform Commission under the guidelines of China’s  national security law, passed in 2015, Xinhua said. It didn’t mention the draft law released by MofCom in 2017, which was based on US regulations that limit export of military and strategic technology. 

“China . . . appears to be implementing a longer-term strategy that recognises its competitive advantage in manufacturing, while building towards competing for control over the real value in the modern supply chain — intellectual property,” Jeanine Daou, a tax specialist at PwC Middle East, concluded in the PwC report.

China has said it would retaliate against foreign companies that arbitrarily refuse to do business with Huawei, putting multinationals in the middle of a tug of war over which country dominates the next generation of technology. Last month, the NDRC implied it would block exports of  rare earths, a material with many strategic applications including smartphones, lasers, instrument panels, wind turbines and MRI machines and more than 90 per cent of hybrid and electric cars. 

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