僧侣死后遗留的财产,其继承人能否继承?换句话说,僧侣身前的财产属于私人所有还是社会团体(寺庙)所有?

一丁,肉吃多了,未能远谋

之前同大家在群里讨论了这么一个问题,这确实属于是一个敏感的问题。光是僧侣就既有信基督耶稣的,还有我佛慈悲的,土生土长早晚一天要“羽化”的道士们还有结婚与不结婚的区别。为了叙述方便,就在这里谈一下汉传佛教的问题。

先说问题的成因,我们今天看到的几个案例争议性都比较大,首先有立法上的背景:一则是继承法于 1985 年方才生效,这让继承无法可依。因此中国佛教协会副会长巨赞法师圆寂一案案发时甚至只能去走访咨询意见,在这里是参考了佛教协会的意见和汉传佛教一贯的传统。

二则是直到民法总则出台之后,在民法上寺庙才取得了捐助法人(或直接称宗教法人)的地位,亦即是在这之前寺庙并不是独立的合法法人实体,继而没办法有自己的对公账户,其结果就会是有僧侣代为管理。因此公账私账分不清,这是很多争夺财产的关键,亦即:钱到底是哪里来的,僧侣?

以汉传佛教为例,公认的收入仅有所发的单资(近似工资的概念)及其合理的非捐助劳务收入。剩余的财产若是接受捐助而来,则当然为寺产,而个人无有所有权。

但是即便是这两个法立出来之后,也并没改变继承问题的难题。继承法公布不久之后,上海玉佛寺和尚钱定安死了,这下倒好,上海高院直接把电话打到了最高法,最后得到了电话批复:我国现行法律对和尚个人遗产的继承问题并无例外的规定,因而,作为公民的和尚死后,其有继承权的亲属继承其遗产的权利尚不能否定;鉴于本案的具体情况,同意对和尚钱定安个人遗产的继承纠纷由受理本案的法院在原、被告双方之间作调解处理

典型的中国智慧。

不过好在是法人地位确定,公私账目清晰一些。那么又会有的问题是,举证难度颇大,仅有的单资和劳务收入如何同捐助款项区分,这样的举证责任一般会被落到起诉人,也就是世俗意义上的近亲属。

而在多年的实践中,一般可以发现,承认亲属的诉权,并承认在可支配财产的范围内拥有遗嘱继承的可能,毕竟国法大于约规

而且还有一个困局是,放在法律上,除去援引《汉传佛教寺庙规约》等宗教相关规范性文件(效力还不咋样)之外,似乎很难找到哪里有一条法律来说明寺庙和僧侣之间的关系。就算能够厘清钱的来源和性质,为什么要把钱给寺庙。理由一般是:宗教习惯,类比于特别权力关系的理论以及类似于五保户的“无主物”归属与死因契约等。

但一般来说,在亲属不起争诉的情况,其所有遗产的将归于寺庙是一种习惯,且延续千年。

当然了,也不是什么时候寺庙都是强势方,比如天主教会在宝岛台湾就被打过土豪:

台中地方法院八月十一日公布的判决书指出,享年九十八岁的曹神父在晋铎时发了神贫愿,并立下书面遗嘱,故死后其名下的四笔土地、一栋房屋和现金一万余元的遗产,判定全归「财团法人天主教耀汉小兄弟会」,使国有财产局不能取得财产管理人地位。

曹神父在二零零六年也立下遗嘱,「凡于本人死亡时,登记于名下的不动产及本人所有的其他财产,全数捐赠与天主教耀汉小兄弟会」。然而,国有财产局提出质疑遗嘱不是全部亲自书写,部分内容以电脑打字,与自书遗嘱的法律要求不符。

台中教区副主教徐世昭神父和天主教卫道高中校长陈秋敏作证时称,天主教神父都发愿死后将遗产赠与所属教会,教内信徒众所周知。

审理终结后民事庭法官认定,曹立珊生前未婚,膝下无子女,除担任神父,也是耀汉会董事。耀汉会和曹的财产有死因赠与契约关系存在,判其财产无偿给予耀汉会,全案仍可上诉。

发帖时间: news

关于 “僧侣死后遗留的财产,其继承人能否继承?换句话说,僧侣身前的财产属于私人所有还是社会团体(寺庙)所有?” 的 22 个意见

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